Euphorbia khandallensis Origin and Habitat: India (Western Ghats). The type specimen was collected by McCann in Khandala in 1918
Euphorbia khandallensis Altitude range: Around 500 metres above sea level.
Habitat and ecology: The typical locality is an exposed rocky ground, where plants are subject to rather hard climatic conditions throughout the year.
Euphorbia khandallensis Description: Euphorbia fusiformis var. khandallensis (formerly Euphorbia khandallensis) is a geophyte, polymorphic dwarf species similar to Euphorbia acaulis. It forms a substantial rootstock (caudex) that can grow to about 40 cm long and 10 centimetres in diameter, the whole aboveground plant to 15 centimetres height. The green and purplish leaves are very attractive, appear during rains and fall off soon after they cease. The leaves are followed by a purplish inflorescence. The shape and size of the bracts is the feature most readily separating this plant from E. acaulis.
Derivation of specific name: ‘khandallensis’ For the occurrence near Khandalla, India.
Rootstock: Up to 40(-70) cm long, 10-20 cm in diameter, simple or sparingly branched, completely covered underground.
Stems: Few, below ground, usually less than 2 cm long.
Leaves: Radical (spreading at ground-level), fleshy, oblanceolate, up to 33 cm long and 11 cm wide (but usually smaller), entire, green, yellow to red-variegated, petiole to 5 cm long.
Inflorescence: Coming out soon after leaf fall, generally purplish, at times green in colour, up to 14(-18) cm long and about 10 cm broad, with peduncles to 9 cm long. The lower bracts broadly triangular, as broad as or broader than long to 6 mm long, purplish; higher bracts broadly ovate or suborbicular, abruptly acuminate. Cymes 4- to 5-forked, rays to 15 mm long.
Flowers (Cynthia): Approx 6 mm in diameter, reddish; nectar-glands oblong, purplish, touching.
Blooming season (in habitat): The species flowers and set fruits abundantly during February to April.
Fruits: Obtusely lobed, 4×8 mm. Pedicels to 12 mm long, recurved.
Seeds: Globose, 3 mm in diameter.